Table of Contents
In the beginning, there existed two deities known as Uranus and Gaia. They gave birth to the Titans (a race of powerful beings). Saturn, Titan of time, set reality in motion. Ultimately, time yielded the existence of the sky, the sea, and the end of life—death. To rule these notions, Saturn had three sons: Jupiter (sky), Neptune (sea), and Pluto (underworld). The son’s of Saturn were not Titans, but a race of seemingly less powerful deities known the world over as the Gods. Fearful that his sons would overthrow him, Saturn devoured them and imprisoned them in his stomach. This caused a great war between the Titans and Gods. Ultimately, the Gods won and Jupiter took the throne as leader of the Gods.
The examples in this section make extensive use of a toy graph distributed with Titan called The Graph of the Gods. This graph is diagrammed below. The abstract data model is known as a Property Graph Model and this particular instance describes the relationships between the beings and places of the Roman pantheon. Moreover, special text and symbol modifiers in the diagram (e.g. bold, underline, etc.) denote different schematics/typings in the graph.
a graph indexed key
bold key with star
a graph indexed key that must have a unique value
a vertex-centric indexed key
a functional/unique edge (no duplicates)
a unidirectional edge (can only traverse in one direction)
Unbeknownst to the Gods, there still lived one Titan. This Titan can not be seen, has no name, and is only apparent in the fact that reality exists. Upon the shoulders of this lost Titan, all of reality hangs together in an undulating web of relations.
Titan can be downloaded from the Downloads section of the project repository. Once retrieved and unpacked, a Gremlin console can be opened. The Gremlin REPL (i.e. interactive shell) is distributed with Titan and only differs from the standard Gremlin console insofar that Titan is a pre-installed and pre-loaded package. Alternatively, a user may choose to install and activate Titan in an existing Gremlin console by downloading the Titan package from the central repository. In the example below,
titan.zip is used, however, be sure to unzip the zip-file that was downloaded.
Titan requires Java 8 (Standard Edition). Oracle Java 8 is recommended. Titan’s shell scripts expect that the
$ unzip titan-1.0.0-hadoop1.zip Archive: titan-1.0.0-hadoop1.zip creating: titan-1.0.0-hadoop1/ ... $ cd titan-1.0.0-hadoop1 $ bin/gremlin.sh \,,,/ (o o) -----oOOo-(3)-oOOo----- 09:12:24 INFO org.apache.tinkerpop.gremlin.hadoop.structure.HadoopGraph - HADOOP_GREMLIN_LIBS is set to: /usr/local/titan/lib plugin activated: tinkerpop.hadoop plugin activated: aurelius.titan gremlin>
Note, that this tutorial assumes the activation of the
tinkerpop.sugar package for more concise syntax. Please refer to the Tinkerpop documentation for more information on package handling.
The Gremlin terminal is a Groovy shell. Groovy is a superset of Java that has various shorthand notations that make interactive programming easier. Likewise Gremlin is a superset of Groovy with various shorthand notations that make graph traversals easy. The basic examples below demonstrate handling numbers, strings, and maps. The remainder of the tutorial will discuss graph-specific constructs.
gremlin> 100-10 ==>90 gremlin> "Titan:" + " The Rise of Big Graph Data" ==>Titan: The Rise of Big Graph Data gremlin> [name:'aurelius', vocation:['philosopher', 'emperor']] ==>name=aurelius ==>vocation=[philosopher, emperor]
The example below will open a Titan graph instance and load The Graph of the Gods dataset diagrammed above.
TitanFactory provides a set of static
open methods, each of which takes a configuration as its argument and returns a graph instance. This tutorial calls one of these
open methods on a configuration that uses the BerkeleyDB storage backend and the Elasticsearch index backend, then loads The Graph of the Gods using the helper class
GraphOfTheGodsFactory. This section skips over the configuration details, but additional information about storage backends, index backends, and their configuration are available in Part III, “Storage Backends”, Part IV, “Index Backends”, and Chapter 12, Configuration Reference.
gremlin> graph = TitanFactory.open('conf/titan-berkeleyje-es.properties') ==>standardtitangraph[berkeleyje:../db/berkeley] gremlin> GraphOfTheGodsFactory.load(graph) ==>null gremlin> g = graph.traversal() ==>graphtraversalsource[standardtitangraph[berkeleyje:../db/berkeley], standard]
TitanFactory.open() and GraphOfTheGodsFactory.load() methods do the following to the newly constructed graph prior to returning it:
- Creates a collection of global and vertex-centric indices on the graph.
- Adds all the vertices to the graph along with their properties.
- Adds all the edges to the graph along with their properties.
Please see the GraphOfTheGodsFactory source code for details.
For those using Titan/Cassandra (or Titan/HBase), be sure to make use of
gremlin> graph = TitanFactory.open('conf/titan-cassandra-es.properties') ==>standardtitangraph[cassandrathrift:[127.0.0.1]] gremlin> GraphOfTheGodsFactory.load(graph) ==>null gremlin> g = graph.traversal() ==>graphtraversalsource[standardtitangraph[cassandrathrift:[127.0.0.1]], standard]
The typical pattern for accessing data in a graph database is to first locate the entry point into the graph using a graph index. That entry point is an element (or set of elements) — i.e. a vertex or edge. From the entry elements, a Gremlin path description describes how to traverse to other elements in the graph via the explicit graph structure.
Given that there is a unique index on
name property, the Saturn vertex can be retrieved. The property map (i.e. the key/value pairs of Saturn) can then be examined. As demonstrated, the Saturn vertex has a
name of "saturn, " an
age of 10000, and a
type of "titan." The grandchild of Saturn can be retrieved with a traversal that expresses: "Who is Saturn’s grandchild?" (the inverse of "father" is "child"). The result is Hercules.
gremlin> saturn = g.V().has('name', 'saturn').next() ==>v gremlin> g.V(saturn).valueMap() ==>[name:[saturn], age:] gremlin> g.V(saturn).in('father').in('father').values('name') ==>hercules
place is also in a graph index. The property
place is an edge property. Therefore, Titan can index edges in a graph index. It is possible to query The Graph of the Gods for all events that have happened within 50 kilometers of Athens (latitude:37.97 and long:23.72). Then, given that information, which vertices were involved in those events.
gremlin> g.E().has('place', geoWithin(Geoshape.circle(37.97, 23.72, 50))) ==>e[a9x-co8-9hx-39s][16424-battled->4240] ==>e[9vp-co8-9hx-9ns][16424-battled->12520] gremlin> g.E().has('place', geoWithin(Geoshape.circle(37.97, 23.72, 50))).as('source').inV().as('god2').select('source').outV().as('god1').select('god1', 'god2').by('name') ==>[god1:hercules, god2:hydra] ==>[god1:hercules, god2:nemean]
Graph indices are one type of index structure in Titan. Graph indices are automatically chosen by Titan to answer which ask for all vertices (
g.V) or all edges (
g.E) that satisfy one or multiple constraints (e.g.
interval). The second aspect of indexing in Titan is known as vertex-centric indices. Vertex-centric indices are utilized to speed up traversals inside the graph. Vertex-centric indices are described later.
Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmene, bore super human strength. Hercules was a Demigod because his father was a god and his mother was a human. Juno, wife of Jupiter, was furious with Jupiter’s infidelity. In revenge, she blinded Hercules with temporary insanity and caused him to kill his wife and children. To atone for the slaying, Hercules was ordered by the Oracle of Delphi to serve Eurystheus. Eurystheus appointed Hercules to 12 labors.
In the previous section, it was demonstrated that Saturn’s grandchild was Hercules. This can be expressed using a
loop. In essence, Hercules is the vertex that is 2-steps away from Saturn along the
gremlin> hercules = g.V(saturn).repeat(__.in('father')).times(2).next() ==>v
Hercules is a demigod. To prove that Hercules is half human and half god, his parent’s origins must be examined. It is possible to traverse from the Hercules vertex to his mother and father. Finally, it is possible to determine the
type of each of them — yielding "god" and "human."
gremlin> g.V(hercules).out('father', 'mother') ==>v ==>v gremlin> g.V(hercules).out('father', 'mother').values('name') ==>jupiter ==>alcmene gremlin> g.V(hercules).out('father', 'mother').label() ==>god ==>human gremlin> hercules.label() ==>demigod
The examples thus far have been with respect to the genetic lines of the various actors in the Roman pantheon. The Property Graph Model is expressive enough to represent multiple types of things and relationships. In this way, The Graph of the Gods also identifies Hercules' various heroic exploits --- his famous 12 labors. In the previous section, it was discovered that Hercules was involved in two battles near Athens. It is possible to explore these events by traversing
battled edges out of the Hercules vertex.
gremlin> g.V(hercules).out('battled') ==>v ==>v ==>v gremlin> g.V(hercules).out('battled').valueMap() ==>[name:[nemean]] ==>[name:[hydra]] ==>[name:[cerberus]] gremlin> g.V(hercules).outE('battled').has('time', gt(1)).inV().values('name') ==>cerberus ==>hydra
The edge property
battled edges is indexed by the vertex-centric indices of a vertex. Retrieving
battled edges incident to Hercules according to a constraint/filter on
time is faster than doing a linear scan of all edges and filtering (typically
O(log n), where
n is the number incident edges). Titan is intelligent enough to use vertex-centric indices when available. A
toString() of a Gremlin expression shows a decomposition into individual steps.
gremlin> g.V(hercules).outE('battled').has('time', gt(1)).inV().values('name').toString() ==>[GraphStep([v],vertex), VertexStep(OUT,[battled],edge), HasStep([time.gt(1)]), EdgeVertexStep(IN), PropertiesStep([name],value)]
In the depths of Tartarus lives Pluto. His relationship with Hercules was strained by the fact that Hercules battled his pet, Cerberus. However, Hercules is his nephew — how should he make Hercules pay for his insolence?
The Gremlin traversals below provide more examples over The Graph of the Gods. The explanation of each traversal is provided in the prior line as a
gremlin> pluto = g.V().has('name', 'pluto').next() ==>v gremlin> // who are pluto's cohabitants? gremlin> g.V(pluto).out('lives').in('lives').values('name') ==>pluto ==>cerberus gremlin> // pluto can't be his own cohabitant gremlin> g.V(pluto).out('lives').in('lives').where(is(neq(pluto))).values('name') ==>cerberus gremlin> g.V(pluto).as('x').out('lives').in('lives').where(neq('x')).values('name') ==>cerberus
gremlin> // where do pluto's brothers live? gremlin> g.V(pluto).out('brother').out('lives').values('name') ==>sky ==>sea gremlin> // which brother lives in which place? gremlin> g.V(pluto).out('brother').as('god').out('lives').as('place').select() ==>[god:v, place:v] ==>[god:v, place:v] gremlin> // what is the name of the brother and the name of the place? gremlin> g.V(pluto).out('brother').as('god').out('lives').as('place').select().by('name') ==>[god:jupiter, place:sky] ==>[god:neptune, place:sea]
Finally, Pluto lives in Tartarus because he shows no concern for death. His brothers, on the other hand, chose their locations based upon their love for certain qualities of those locations.
gremlin> g.V(pluto).outE('lives').values('reason') ==>no fear of death gremlin> g.E().has('reason', textContains('loves')) ==>e[6xs-sg-m51-e8][1024-lives->512] ==>e[70g-zk-m51-lc][1280-lives->768] gremlin> g.E().has('reason', textContains('loves')).as('source').values('reason').as('reason').select('source').outV().values('name').as('god').select('source').inV().values('name').as('thing').select('god', 'reason', 'thing') ==>[god:neptune, reason:loves waves, thing:sea] ==>[god:jupiter, reason:loves fresh breezes, thing:sky]